Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory


| General X-ray Imaging | X-ray Tomography | Proton/Ion Radiography | Ultrasound | Radar | SNM Detection | Additive Manufacturing |
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General X-ray Imaging

Tringe, J.W., Vandersall, K.S., Reaugh, J.E.,Levie, H.W., Henson, B.F., Smilowitz, L.B., Parker, G.R., 2017. Observation and modeling of deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) in low-density HMX . AIP Conference Proceedings.

Martz, H.E., Logan, C.M., Schneberk, D.J. and Shull, P.J., 2016. X-ray imaging: Fundamentals, Industrial Techniques and Applications. CRC Press.

Tringe, J.W., Glascoe, L.G., McClelland, M.A., Greenwood, D., Chambers, R.D.,Springer, H.K.,Levie, H.W., 2014. Pre-ignition confinement and deflagration violence in LX-10 and PBX 9501. AIP Journal of Applied Physics.

Kallman, J.S. and Azevedo, S.G., 2012. Ray-weighted constrained-conjugate-gradient tomographic reconstruction for security applications. Proc. 2nd Intl. Mtg. on image formation in X-ray CT, pp.305-9.

Barty, A., Marchesini, S., Chapman, H.N., Cui, C., Howells, M.R., Shapiro, D.A., Minor, A.M., Spence, J.C., Weierstall, U., Ilavsky, J. and Noy, A., 2008. Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of a ceramic nanofoam: determination of structural deformation mechanisms. Physical review letters, 101(5), p.055501.

Kucheyev, S.O., Van Buuren, T., Baumann, T.F., Satcher Jr, J.H., Willey, T.M., Meulenberg, R.W., Felter, T.E., Poco, J.F., Gammon, S.A. and Terminello, L.J., 2004. Electronic structure of titania aerogels from soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy. Physical Review B, 69(24), p.245102.

Shull, P.J., ed., 2002 Nondestructive evaluation: theory, techniques, and applications. CRC press.

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X-ray Tomography

Zellner, M.B., Champley, K.M., Martz, H.E., Cantrell, R., Yonce, C.E., Dudeck III, K.W.,Benjamin, C.A., Borys, R.W., Schall, D.R., Ducote III, A.P., O'Conner, T.J., Nellenbach, T.E., Sturgill, N.J., Quigg, T.L., Halsey, S.T., Benjamin, J.A., and Huntzinger, B.P., 2016. Development of a Multi-Energy Flash Computed Tomography Diagnostic for Three Dimensional Imaging of Ballistic Experiments..

Azevedo, S.G., Martz, H.E., Aufderheide, M.B., Brown, W.D., Champley, K.M., Kallman, J.S., Roberson, G.P., Schneberk, D., Seetho, I.M., and Smith, J.A., 2016. System-independent characterization of materials using dual-energy computed tomography. IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 63(1), pp.341-350.

Willey, T.M., Champley, K., Hodgin, R., Lauderbach, L., Bagge-Hansen, M., May, C., Sanchez, N., Jensen, B.J., Iverson, A. and van Buuren, T., 2016. X-ray imaging and 3D reconstruction of in-flight exploding foil initiator flyers. Journal of Applied Physics, 119(23), p.235901

Martz, H.E., Seetho, I.M., Champley, K.E., Smith, J.A. and Azevedo, S.G., 2016, May. CT dual-energy decomposition into x-ray signatures ρe and Ze. In SPIE Defense+ Security (pp. 98470D-98470D). International Society for Optics and Photonics.

Willey, T.M., Champley, K., Hodgin, R., Lauderbach, L., Bagge-Hansen, M., May, C., Sanchez, N., Jensen, B.J., Iverson, A. and van Buuren, T., 2016. X-ray imaging and 3D reconstruction of in-flight exploding foil initiator flyers. Journal of Applied Physics, 119(23), p.235901.

Divin, C.J., 2016. Reconstructing misaligned x-ray CT data (No. LLNL-TR-707960). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA.

Champley, K.M. and Bremer, T., 2014. Efficient and Accurate Correction of Beam Hardening Artifacts (No. LLNL-CONF-649613). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA.

Kallman, J.S., Azevedo, S. and Martz, H.E., 2014, March. Effects of powder morphology and particle size on CT number estimates. In IS&T/SPIE Electronic Imaging (pp. 90200K-90200K). International Society for Optics and Photonics.

White, W.T., Bond, K.C., Lennox, K.P., Aufderheide, I.M., Seetho, I.M. and Roberson, G.P., 2014. Recent Progress Validating the HADES Model of LLNL's HEAF MicroCT Measurements (No. LLNL-TR--664835). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States).

Jain, A.K., Current, K.W. and Hurst, P.J., 2013. Stephen G. Azevedo, Anthony J. De Groot, Daniel J. Schneberk, James M. Brase, and Harry E. Martz Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Tomographic Image Reconstruction using Systolic Array Algorithms, Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation: Volume 8, Part A and B, 8, p.415.

Champley, K.M. and Martz, H.E., 2012. Statistical-analytic regularized reconstruction for x-ray CT. In 12th Int’l Meeting on Fully Three-Dimensional Image Reconstruction in Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (pp. 173-176).

Ashby, A.E., Brand, H., Hollerbach, K., Logan, C.M. and Martz, H.E., 1995, September. LLNL high resolution extremity CT for biomechanics modeling. In Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 1995., IEEE 17th Annual Conference (Vol. 1, pp. 395-396). IEEE.

Roberson, G.P., Martz, H.E., Decman, D.J., Camp, D.C., Azevedo, S.G. and Keto, E.R., 1994, February. Characterization of waste drums using nonintrusive active and passive computed tomography. In Proceedings of the Nondestructive Assay & Nondestructive Examination Waste Characterization Conference (pp. 14-16).

Azevedo, S.G., Martz, H.E. and Schneberk, D.J., 1993, December. Potential of computed tomography for inspection of aircraft components. In SPIE's 1993 International Symposium on Optics, Imaging, and Instrumentation (pp. 47-57). International Society for Optics and Photonics.

Martz, H.E., Schneberk, D.J. and Roberson, G.P., 1993, November. Three-dimensional nonintrusive imaging of obscured objects by x-ray and gamma-ray computed tomography. In Optical Engineering and Photonics in Aerospace Sensing (pp. 236-249). International Society for Optics and Photonics.

Martz, H.E., Roberson, G.P., Schneberk, D.J. and Azevedo, S.G., 1991. Nuclear-spectroscopy based, first-generation, computerized tomography scanners. IEEE transactions on nuclear science, 38(2), pp.623-635.

Martz, H.E., Roberson, G.P., Skeate, M.F., Schneberk, D.J. and Azevedo, S.G., 1991. Computerized tomography studies of concrete samples. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 58(2), pp.216-226.

Martz, H.E., Schneberk, D.J., Roberson, G.P., Azevedo, S.G. and Lynch, S.K., 1991. Computerized tomography of high explosives. In Nondestructive Characterization of Materials IV (pp. 187-195). Springer US.

Martz, H.E., Azevedo, S.G., Brase, J.M., Waltjen, K.E. and Schneberk, D.J., 1990. Computed tomography systems and their industrial applications. International Journal of Radiation Applications and Instrumentation. Part A. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 41(10-11), pp.943-961.

Azevedo, S.G., Schneberk, D.J., Fitch, J.P. and Martz, H.E., 1990. Calculation of the rotational centers in computed tomography sinograms. IEEE transactions on nuclear science, 37(4), pp.1525-1540.

Azevedo, S.G., Martz, H.E., and Brase, J.M., “Computed Tomography for Nondestructive Evaluation,” Energy & Technology Review, UCRL-52000-88-10, Oct 1988, pp. 9-22.

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Proton and Ion Radiography

von Wittenau, A.E.S., Aufderheide, M. and Henderson, G., 2011. Predicting image blur in proton radiography: Comparisons between measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, 652(1), pp.901-904.

Aufderheide III, M.B., Park, H.S., Hartouni, E.P., Barnes, P.D., Wright, D.M., Bionta, R.M., Zumbro, J.D. and Morris, C.L., 1999, December. Proton radiography as a means of material characterization. In R.E. Green ed., AIP Conference Proceedings (Vol. 497, No. 1, pp. 706-712). AIP.

Pontau, A.E., Antolak, A.J., Morse, D.H., Ver Berkmoes, A.A., Brase, J.M., Heikkinen, D.W., Martz, H.E. and Proctor, I.D., 1989. Ion microbeam tomography. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 40, pp.646-650.

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Candy, J.V., Fisher, K.A., Guidry, B.L. and Chambers, D.H., 2014. Model-based failure detection for cylindrical shells from noisy vibration measurements. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 136(6), pp.3114-3125.

Fisher, K.A., 2008. Monitoring thickness deviations in planar multi-layer elastic structures using impedance signatures. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 124(1), pp.32-35.

Fisher, K., 2008. Modeling the acoustic radiation force in piezoelectrically driven micro fluidic chambers using ATILA. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 123(5), pp.3116-3116.

Chambers, D., Lehman, S., Hagler, L., Hsieh, H. and Fisher, K., 2008. Flaw localization in a structure using model‐based backpropagation. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 124(4), pp.2576-2576.

Guidry, B.L., Candy, J.V., Fisher, K.A., Chambers, D.H. and Lehman, S.K., 2007. On‐line failure detection of a vibrating structure: A model‐based approach. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 122(5), pp.3090-3090.

Fisher, K.A., Lehman, S.K. and Chambers, D.H., 2005. Development of a multiview time-domain imaging algorithm with a Fermat correction. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 118(5), pp.3122-3128.

Chambers, D.H. and Berryman, J.G., 2004. Time-reversal analysis for scatterer characterization. Physical review letters, 92(2), p.023902.

Littrup, P.J., Duric, N., Azevedo, S., Chambers, D., Candy, J.V., Johnson, S., Auner, G., Rather, J. and Holsapple, E.T., 2002. Computerized ultrasound risk evaluation (CURE) system: Development of combined transmission and reflection ultrasound with new reconstruction algorithms for breast imaging. In Acoustical Imaging (pp. 175-182). Springer US.

Leach Jr, R., Azevedo, S.G., Berryman, J.G., Bertete-Aguirre, H., Chambers, D.H., Mast, J.E., Littrup, P.J., Duric, N., Johnson, S.A. and Wuebbeling, F., 2002, April. Comparison of ultrasound tomography methods in circular geometry. In Medical Imaging 2002 (pp. 362-377). International Society for Optics and Photonics.

Kallman, J.S., Ashby, A.E., Ciarlo, D.R. and Thomas, G.H., 2002. Novel Ultrasound Sensor and Reconstruction Algorithm for Breast Cancer Detection. Era of Hope, Proceedings, 2, pp.29-5.

Kallman, J.S., Ashby, A.E., Ciarlo, D.R. and Thomas, G.H., 2000, March. OPUS: an optically parallel ultrasound sensor. In BiOS 2000 The International Symposium on Biomedical Optics (pp. 64-73). International Society for Optics and Photonics.

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Paglieroni, D.W., Pechard, C.T. and Beer, N.R., 2015. Change detection in constellations of buried objects extracted from ground-penetrating radar data. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 53(5), pp.2426-2439.

Azevedo, S.G., Mast, J.E., Nelson, S.D., Rosenbury, E.T., Jones, H.E., McEwan, T.E., Mullenhoff, D.J., Hugenberger, R.E., Stever, R.D., Warhus, J.P. and Wieting, M.G., 1996, November. HERMES: A high-speed radar imaging system for inspection of bridge decks. In Nondestructive Evaluation Techniques for Aging Infrastructure and Manufacturing (pp. 195-204). International Society for Optics and Photonics.

Azevedo, S.G., Gravel, D.T., Mast, J.E. and Warhus, J.P., 1995. Landmine detection and imaging using micropower impulse radar (MIR) (No. UCRL-ID--121669). Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States).

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SNM Detection

Martz, H.E.,Glenn, S.M.,Smith, J.A., Divin, C.J., and Azevedo, S.G., 2017.,Poly-versus Mono-energetic Dual-spectrum Non-intrusive Inspection of Cargo Containers,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 64(7), pp. 1709-1718.

Holzaepfel, A.J., 2013. Simulated PVT Detector Response with Unshielded/Shielded SNM and Mixed Radionuclides (No. LLNL-TR-642075). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA.

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Additive Manufacturing

Carlton, H.D., Lind, J., Messner, M.C., Volkoff-Shoemaker, N.A., Barnard, H.S., Kumar, M., 2017. Mapping local deformation behavior in single cell metal lattice structures. Acta Materialia, 129, (pp.239-250).

Saha, S.K., Divin, C., Cuadra, J.A. and Panas, R.M., 2016, June. Part damage due to proximity effects during sub-micron additive manufacturing via two-photon lithography. In ASME 2016 11th International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference (pp. V001T02A084-V001T02A084). American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

Bauza, M.B., Moylan, S.P., Panas, R.M., Burke, S.C., Martz, H.E., Taylor, J.S., Alexander, P., Knebel, R.H., Bhogaraju, R., O'Connell, M.T. and Smokovitz, J.D., 2014, April. Study of accuracy of parts produced using additive manufacturing. In ASPE Spring Topical Meeting: Dimensional Accuracy and Surface Finish in Additive Manufacturing, Berkeley, CA, Apr (pp. 13-16).

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Champley, K. M., “Livermore Tomography Tools (LTT) Technical Manual,” LLNL Presentation LLNL-PRES-707793, (Nov 2016).

Bond, K.C., Smith J. A., Treuer J. N., Azevedo S., Kallman J. S., and Martz, Jr. H. E., ZeCalc Algorithm Details, Version 6, LLNL Tech. Rep., LLNL-TR-609327, Jan. 2013, To request a copy of ZeCalc software, contact Mary Holden-Sanchez at

Chen, H., Aufderheide, M.B., White, W.T., Roberson, G.P. and Glascoe, L.G., 2011, November. Validation of HADES-based simulations of radiographic experiments. In Technologies for Homeland Security (HST), 2011 IEEE International Conference on (pp. 104-109). IEEE.

Aufderheide, M.B., Henderson, G., von Wittenau, A.E.S., Slone, D.M. and Martz, H.E., 2004, October. HADES, a code for simulating a variety of radiographic techniques. In Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, 2004 IEEE (Vol. 4, pp. 2579-2583). IEEE.

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Other NDC-related Topics

Deri, R.J., Kallman, J.S. and Dijaili, S.P., 1994. Quantitative analysis of integrated optic waveguide spectrometers. IEEE photonics technology letters, 6(2), pp.242-244.

Kallman, J.S. and Berryman, J.G., 1992. Weighted least-squares criteria for electrical impedance tomography. IEEE transactions on medical imaging, 11(2), pp.284-292.

Streit, R.D., Clark, G.A., and Brase, J.M., “Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation,” Energy & Technology Review, UCRL-52000-87-3, Mar 1987, pp. 11-21.

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The Engineering Department at LLNL generates these yearly reports
Some of which have sections on special NDC technologies developed in that year

Engineering Research and Technology Reports

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For more information on these or other topics, contact us.

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